Research Paper on Cyber Bullying |


cyber bullying research paper

May 28,  · The Cyberbullying Research Center reported that, “About half of young people have experienced some form of cyber bullying, and 10 to 20 percent experience it regularly.” Another big aspect of the problem of bullying is how accessible forms of electronic communications are to Jeff White. Like bullying, cyberbullying is a serious problem which can cause the victim to feel inadequate and overly self-conscious, along with the possibility of committing suicide due to being cyberbullied. Two such cases are included in this paper. There are numerous ways in which schools and parents can prevent cyberbullying and ways in which they can. Consequently, the new form of bullying taking place in the cyberspace requires further research and measures for increasing the students’ awareness of the potential threats of Internet use and the most effective coping strategies. Cyberbullying is an important problem of modern education system.

Bullying And Cyber Bullying - Persuasive Essay Example -

This sample Bullying Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research papersee the lists of criminal justice research paper topicsand browse research paper examples. The study of bullying has flourished in recent years, reflecting the growing recognition of the negative long-term effects this type of aggressive behavior can have on victims and bullies.

There is now a considerable body of cross-sectional and longitudinal research that has informed our understanding of what bullying is; who it is most likely to affect; what consequences it can have for victims, bullies, and the peer group; and what can be done to reduce its occurrence. This research paper attempts to shed some light on these questions by reviewing key empirical research conducted in this field over the last three decades.

The piecemeal and theoretically unsystematic way in which much of this evidence has been produced, cyber bullying research paper, however, makes it difficult to reach a clear and coherent conclusion on why bullying happens and how it can be effectively prevented.

Readers of this review should be aware of these research limitations, which, to some extent, reflect the complexity of the bullying phenomenon that precludes straightforward, one-size-fits-all conclusions. Bullying has received worldwide attention in the last 30 years as a form of aggressive behavior that can have a significant negative impact on the physical, emotional, and academic development of victims, cyber bullying research paper.

The first major contribution to the academic study of bullying was made by Dan Olweus, who wrote the first scholarly book in English to deal with bullying. While much of this work is of interest, showing that bullying has the potential to affect a significant proportion of the population, this review focuses on school bullying, as this is the area that has attracted the most research interest to date.

The international literature is repleted with definitions of school bullying, most of which seem to accept that bullying is any type of negative action intended to cause distress or harm that is repeated and targeted against individuals who cannot defend themselves. When research on bullying started in the s, cyber bullying research paper, bullying was perceived to comprise only episodes of physical cyber bullying research paper verbal aggression where the victim was physically attacked or called names.

Fighting between people of approximately equal strength, a one-time attack, or a cyber bullying research paper teasing and play fighting are not counted as bullying. The advent and widespread use of electronic means of communication such as mobile phones and the Internet has made it easier to bully anonymously, through the use of pseudonyms and temporary accounts, at any time and in any place involving a wide audience.

There are large variations across countries in the prevalence of bullying perpetration and cyber bullying research paper. An example of why valid comparisons between countries are not possible is Portugal where the bullying rate is high compared to other countries, cyber bullying research paper.

Berger in her analysis found that one detail of educational policy in Portugal may account, among other things, for this higher rate of bullying. In Portuguese schools, children are asked to repeat sixth grade unless they pass a rigorous test. This suggests that the difference in prevalence rates between countries may be, at least partly, accounted for by external factors including national differences in school policies and environments but cyber bullying research paper differences in the methodologies used self-reports vs.

Despite variations in prevalence, it is a universal finding that bullying victimization is more frequent among younger children and steadily declines with age. A range of explanations have been put forward to explain these age differences Smith et al.

Compared to older children, younger children are less likely to have developed the appropriate skills and coping strategies to deal effectively with bullies and avert further victimization. Younger children are also less likely to refrain from bullying others due to socialization pressure.

Finally, cyber bullying research paper, there is evidence that younger students adopt a more inclusive definition of bullying when responding to prevalence surveys, and this may, at least partly, account for the higher reported frequency of bullying victimization in primary school. For example, younger pupils might find it more difficult to distinguish between bullying and cyber bullying research paper, broadening the use of the term bullying to include aggressive behaviors that involve no imbalance of power.

Relational forms of bullying take precedence over physical modes of attack as children grow older and their social skills improve. There is some controversy in the literature as to the stability of bullying victimization in primary school. Some studies have reported that bullying victimization is relatively stable over a period of up to 4 years in primary school and often continues in secondary school.

In secondary school, the stability of both bully and victim roles is considerably higher than in primary school according to teacher, peer, and self-reports, cyber bullying research paper.

It is estimated that two out of three male bullies remain in their role over a 1-year period. Despite the moderate to high stability of the victim and bully roles in secondary school, prevalence rates are lower than in primary school.

This suggests that a small number of victims are targeted consistently and systematically in secondary school. Stability in bullying victimization has been explained in two ways. Firstly, it has been observed that victims select social environments that reinforce the risk of victimization, for example, they are more likely to have friends who are less accepted by the peer group and often victimized themselves. Secondly, victims often lack the social skills to break through in new environments, and this increases the risk that they are labeled as victims and locked in that role over a long period of time.

It is important, therefore, to acknowledge that although for some children bullying victimization will be situational, for others it will develop into a trait. The view that males are more likely to bully and be bullied than females has been dismissed in recent years following a better understanding about the different forms aggressive behavior such as bullying can take.

Although males are more likely to engage in physical forms of bullying such as pushing and hitting, females are, according to some studies, more adept at employing relational forms of aggression e.

No consistent gender differences have been identified in the use of verbal bullying e. This suggests that overall gender differences are not as pronounced as originally thought and that bullying is not a male problem. There is some controversy in the literature about the profile of cyber bullying research paper. Initially, studies described children who bullied others as insecure, anxious individuals who have low self-esteem, are unpopular among their classmates, cyber bullying research paper, and use aggressive strategies to resolve conflicts.

This stereotype was later disputed by research that suggested bullies are socially competent and have superior theory of mind skills i. Linked to this, there is also debate concerning cyber bullying research paper bullies lack empathic cyber bullying research paper. Some research suggests that bullies understand the emotions of others but do not share them. The inconsistencies across studies may be, cyber bullying research paper, at least partly, due to different definitions of bully status and different methodologies employed, cyber bullying research paper.

Another meta-analysis by Card found that the strongest correlates of the victimization experience are low self-concept, low physical strength, low school enjoyment, poor social skills, and high internalizing and externalizing problems. It was unclear from these reviews of cross-sectional studies, however, cyber bullying research paper, whether internalizing problems lead to victimization or vice versa.

The recent body of longitudinal research on bullying and peer victimization more widely suggests that the relationship between internalizing problems such as depression, anxiety and loneliness, and victimization is more likely to be reciprocal, that is, internalizing problems contribute to victimization and vice versa.

A metaanalysis of 18 longitudinal studies examining associations between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents concluded that internalizing problems both precede and follow peer victimization experiences Reijntjes et al. It is worth noting, however, that the path from psychological maladjustment to victimization has not been replicated in all studies. For instance, Bond et al. Recent work suggests that bullying might arise out of early cognitive deficits, cyber bullying research paper language problems, imperfect causal understanding, and cyber bullying research paper inhibitory control that lead to decreased competence with peers, which over time develops into bullying.

Research does not support the assertion that physical appearance e. The only physical characteristic that has been associated with an increased risk of victimization is low physical size and strength.

There is less evidence on how equality characteristics influence victimization. There is no consistently robust evidence to suggest that ethnic minority children are more at risk of being bullied at school. Sexual orientation has rarely been investigated in longitudinal studies as a possible risk factor of bullying victimization, but there is some, mainly qualitative, evidence of sexual minorities being targeted in secondary schools.

There is stronger evidence that children with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to victimization in mainstream settings, cyber bullying research paper, although it might be other characteristics of disabled children that make them more vulnerable to victimization such as lack of friends rather than the disability per se.

Research has identified that bully-victims are the most troubled group among children and adolescents involved in bullying incidents. This group displays the highest levels of internalizing problems, cyber bullying research paper, including depression, anxiety, low selfesteem, and loneliness.

At the same time, they score high on externalizing problems such as aggression, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and conduct problems. Other research has shown that bully-victims display higher levels of neuroticism and psychoticism than either bullies or victims.

Bully-victims use aggressive strategies to cope with stressors at school that increase the risk of further victimization and rejection from peers.

Besides the traditional roles of bully, cyber bullying research paper, victim, and bully-victim, cyber bullying research paper, research has identified that all students take on a role when bullying episodes emerge.

Salmivalli et al. Subsequent research established that the three roles of bully, reinforcer, and assistant are closely correlated with each other and, therefore, cyber bullying research paper, cannot usefully discriminate between children.

In kindergarten, the three most commonly held roles are those of the bully, the victim, and the defender, cyber bullying research paper.

Fewer students are defenders by middle school, cyber bullying research paper, and the majority becomes witnesses or bystanders when bullying takes place. Such passive behavior, although not directly encouraging of bullying, provides a permissive context for bullies that allows them to continue harassing their victims. There is clear evidence that parenting styles are related to bullying behavior.

Studies indicate that bullies are more cyber bullying research paper to have parents who are authoritarian and punitive, disagree more often, and are less supportive. The parents of bullies are more likely to have been bullies themselves when they were young.

Victims, on the other hand, are more likely to have been reared in an overprotective family environment. Bully-victims tend to come from family backgrounds that are exposed to abuse and violence and favor the use of harsh, punitive, and restrictive discipline practices. This group reports little positive warmth in their families and more difficulties in communicating with parents. Family characteristics are related to bullying victimization in different ways for boys and girls.

Boys are more prone to victimization when the father is highly critical or absent in his relationship with his son, thus failing to provide a satisfactory role model. Very little research has examined longitudinal associations between early home environment and subsequent bullying behavior, cyber bullying research paper. The few studies that exist suggest a link between low emotional support and subsequent bullying cyber bullying research paper at school. Parents who are disagreeable, hostile, cold, or rejecting tend to have children who are at risk of becoming aggressive in the future.

In a small longitudinal study, Schwartz et al. Mother-child interactions at 5 cyber bullying research paper were characterized by hostile, restrictive, or overly punitive parenting.

They were significantly exposed to higher levels of marital conflicts and more likely to come from marginally lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Bullies were found to be exposed to adult aggression and conflicts, but not victimization by adults, and were from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. These findings need to be replicated in larger samples before any safe conclusions can be drawn.

More recently, there has been interest in how sibling relationships affect the development of bullying behavior. There is international evidence that children who are victimized at school are more likely, compared to other groups, to be victimized by their siblings at home.

Wolke and Samara found that more than half of victims of bullying by siblings Those who were both victimized at home and at school had the highest behavior problems and were the least prosocial. Similar evidence exists in relation to bullying perpetration, suggesting that those who bully at school tend to exhibit similar behaviors towards their siblings at home.

A number of school factors have also been implicated as correlates of bullying behavior. One of the most consistent findings in the international literature is that the number and quality of friends at school is one of the strongest, if not the strongest, protective factor against bullying victimization.

Having friends is not sufficient in itself to protect against victimization. More recent work on the role of class structure and climate on bullying has shown that variations in peer structure and dominance hierarchies influence the stability of bullying victimization.

The results of these studies suggest that victims and bully-victims manifest more adjustment problems than bullies. Victims and, especially, bully-victims are more likely to show elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness; perform less well academically; and display conduct problems.

The only negative long-term outcome that has consistently been reported in the literature for bullies is their involvement in later offending.



cyber bullying research paper


Aug 14,  · Read an example of persuasive essay on Bulling. The understanding of bullying can be very transparent to many people since there are numerous types of it, cyber bullying, prejudicial bullying, physical bullying and bullying through sexual assault. The superficial view of bullying is physical, other types have been equally evil and cruel. May 28,  · The Cyberbullying Research Center reported that, “About half of young people have experienced some form of cyber bullying, and 10 to 20 percent experience it regularly.” Another big aspect of the problem of bullying is how accessible forms of electronic communications are to Jeff White. Like bullying, cyberbullying is a serious problem which can cause the victim to feel inadequate and overly self-conscious, along with the possibility of committing suicide due to being cyberbullied. Two such cases are included in this paper. There are numerous ways in which schools and parents can prevent cyberbullying and ways in which they can.